Dystocia

Symptoms: strong abdominal contractions for 2 to 3 hr without passage of a puppy, active labor for 2 to 3 hr without delivery, discomfort, obvious pain at the end of gestation, black or hemorrhagic vaginal discharge, prolonged gestation

Cause: Metabolic abnormalties (hypocalcemia), insufficient dilatation of the birth canal, fetal oversize, fetal hormone deficiency, fetal death, abnormal fetal posture or presentation

Duration: one or more days

First aid: none

Urgency: immediate help

Prevention: none

 Treatment: radiography, oxytocin administration, antibiotic administration, surgical (caesarean section)

Therapy success: 80 to 100%

Convalescence: few days